连接词 词义 功能
that 无词义 不作成分,只起连接 作用
whether/if 是否 不作成分,起连接作用
what,which 什么,哪个 作主语、宾语、表语
who,whom,whose 谁,谁的 作主语、宾语、定语
when,where,how,why 什么时候/地方,怎么样,为什么 作状语
how many/much 多少 作定语
how soon/often/long/much 多久,多久一次,多长,多么 作状语
... ... 词义及功能同疑问词
whatever=anything that 无论什么 作主语、宾语、表语、 定语
whosever=anyone whose 无论谁的 作主语、宾语、定语、 表语
whichever=anything that 无论哪个 作宾语、定语、主语、表语
whoever=anyone who 无论谁 作主语
whomever=anyone whom 无论谁 作宾语
主语从句是在复合句中充当主语的从句,通常放在主句谓语动词之前或由形式主语it代替,而本身放在句子末尾.引导主语从句的连接词主要有三类:连接词that,whether;连接代词what,who,which, whose,whatever,whichever,whoever, whomever等;连接副词when,where,why,how等.
It is a pity that you didn't go to see the film.你没去看那场电影真是遗憾.
It doesn't interest me whether you succeed or not.你成功与否对我没有什么吸引力.
1)It is +名词+从句
It is a fact that ...事实是…It is an honor that...非常荣幸
It is common knowledge that...……是常识
2)it is +形容词+从句
It is natural that...很自然…It is strange that...奇怪的是……
3)it is +不及物动词+从句
It seems that...似乎…It happened that...碰巧……
It is reported that...据报道…It has been proved that...已证实……
2)It is said ,(reported)...结构中的主语从句不可提前.如:
It is said that President Jiang will visit our school next week.(right) 据说江主席下周要来我校视察.
That President Jiang will visit our school next week is said.(wrong)
3) It happens...,It occurs... 结构中的主语从句不可提前.如:
It occurred to him that he failed in the examination.(right) 他考试没及格.
That he failed in the examination occurred to him.(wrong)
4)It doesn't matter how/whether ...结构中的主语从句不可提前.如:
It doesn't matter whether he is wrong or not.(right) 他是不是错了,这一点不重要.
Whether he is wrong or not doesn't matter.(wrong)
Is it likely that it will rain in the evening? (right)
Is that will rain in the evening likely? (wrong) 傍晚有可能下雨吗?
4.what 与that 在引导主语从句时的区别
what 引导主语从句时在从句中充当句子成分,如主语、宾语、表语,而that 则不然.如:
What you said yesterday is right. 你昨天说的是对的.
宾语从句是在复合句中作宾语的名词性从句,通常放在主句谓语动词(及物动词)或介词之后. 引导宾语从句的连接词主要有三类:连接词that,whether,if等,连接代词which,what,who,whom, whose,whatever,whichever,whoever, whomever,等,连接副词when,where,why,how等.
I heard that he joined the army. 我听说他参军了.
She did not know what had happened. 她不知道发生了什么事.
She told me that she would accept my invitation. 她跟我说她愿意接受我的邀请.
Our success depends upon how well we can cooperate with one another. 我们的成功取决于我们的合作情况.
I am afraid (that)I've made a mistake. 我恐怕是犯错了.
【特别提示】 that 引导的从句常跟在下列形容词后作宾语:
ashamed,disappointed,annoyed,pleased,hurt,satisfied,content 等.也可以将此类词后的that 从句看作
We heard it that she would get married next month. 我们听说她打算下个月结婚.
①He asked me when we could set out the next day.他问我第二天什么时候可以出发.
she says(that)she will leave a message on his desk.她说她要在他桌子上留个便条.(从句是一般将来时)
She says(that)she has never been to Mount Emei.她说她从来没有去过峨眉山.(从句是现在完成时)
He said there were no classes yesterday afternoon.他说昨天下午没有课.(从句是一般过去时)
He said that he was going to take care of the baby.他说他会去照看这个婴儿.(从句是过去将来时)
The teacher told us that nothing is difficult if we put our hearts into it.老师告诉我们世上无难事,只怕有心人.
He said that light travels much faster than sound.他说光比声音传播得快.
I think it necessary that we take plenty of boiled water every day.我认为每天多喝开水是有必要的.
(2)hate,like,take,owe,have,take for granted等表示"喜欢;痛恨;认为"的动词或动词短语和see to表示"注意,留意"后有宾语补足语时,需要用it作形式宾语而将宾语从句后置.如:
I hate it when they talk with their mouth full of food.我讨厌他们满嘴食物说话.
When you start the engine,you must see to it that the car is in neutral.启动发动机时,一定要使汽车的离合器处于空档位置.
She is always thinking of how she can do more for others.她总想着如何才能为别人做得更多.
表语从句是在复合句中作表语的名词性从句,放在系动词之后,一般结构是"主语+连系动词+表语从句".可以接表语从句的连系动词有be,look,remain,seem等.常由连接词that,whether;because, as if/though连接代词who,whom,whose,which,what,whoever,whomever,whichever,whatever;连接副词when,where,how,why引导.另外,常用的还有The reason is that... 和It is because 等结构.如:
(1) as/as if/as though引导的表语从句常跟在特定动词后面,如seem,appear,look,taste,sound,feel等.如:
It sounds as if someone is knocking at the door.听上去好像有人在敲门.
(2) 当主句的主语是reason时,表语从句一般由that引导,这种用法常见于句型The reason why…is that….如:The reason why he came late was that he got up late.他来得晚是因为起床晚了.
The question is whether we can make good preparation in such a short time.
This is why we can't get the support of the people. 这就是我们为什么得不到人民支持的原因.
一般位于该名词之后,说明该名词的具体内容.这些名词常见的有idea,fact,news,hope,belief,thought,doubt,promise,suggestion,order等.同位语从句的引导词有: that, whether, who, what ,which ,when , where ,how, why 等.
They expressed the hope that we would go and visit Shanghai again.他们表示希望我们再去访问上海.
The student asked me the question whether the book Was worth reading.
I have no idea why he was excited at that time.我不知道当时他激动的原因.
He got the news from Mary that the sports meeting was put off.他从玛丽那里得知运动会要延期举行.
The news that he told me is that Tom would go abroad next year.
The news that Tom would go abroad is told by him.
(1)当that从句作介词宾语时,that不能省略.如:They share little in common except that they are from the same country.除了来自同一个国家之外,他们几乎没有共同点.
I believe(that)you've done your best and that things will improve.我相信你已经尽力了,而且情况也会得到改善.
The hope that he may recover is not gone yet.他会康复的希望没有消失.(that不充当成分,也无含义)
What he said proved to be true.他所说的话证明是正确的.(what作said的宾语,可以翻译为"……的话")
3.用whether 不用if 的情况:
Whether the meeting will be given is still a problem. (主从句位于句首)
It is doubtful whether/if he will come here. (主从句位于句尾)
The problem is whether the meeting will be given. (表语从句)
I have no idea whether the meeting will be given. (同位语从句)
It depends on whether you can do the work well. (介词后)
1 (典型例题)Mary wrote an article on __ the team had failed to win the game.
A. why B. what C. who D. that
2 (典型例题 ) A computer can only do __ you have instructed it to do.
A. how B. after C. what D. whe
3.(典型例题) __ made the school proud was more than 90% of the students had been admitted to key universities.
A. What, because B. What, that C. That, what D. That, because
4.(典型例题)His ability has never been in doubt—the question is he is prepared to work hard.
A. whether B. if