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动词不定式的10大考点例析(初中英语语法) 简介:动词不定式的10大考点例析(初中英语语法)动词不定式是初中英语的语法重点之一,也是每年中考英语试题的考点之一.它是动词的一种非谓语形式,没有人称和数的变化,不…
动词不定式的10大考点例析(初中英语语法)       ★★★★★
动词不定式的10大考点例析(初中英语语法)
作者:天天学英语 文章来源:http://www.ttxyy.com 点击数: 更新时间:2012-12-29 17:18:47

动词不定式的10大考点例析(初中英语语法)
动词不定式是初中英语的语法重点之一,也是每年中考英语试题的考点之一.它是动词的一种非谓语形式,没有人称和数的变化,不能单独作句子的谓语.其构成形式为"to+动词原形",to为动词不定式的符号,本身无意义.动词不定式具有两大特点:
1.具有动词的特点,因此,后面可以跟表语、宾语或状语,构成动词不定式短语.
2.具有名词、形容词或副词的特点,可以在句子中用作主语、宾语、宾语补足语、状语、定语、表语及同位语等.下面以近几年全国部分省市的中考英语试题为例,对不定式的难点以及它在中考英语中的考查点,作一简要的总结和分析,供同学们学习时参考.
一、动词不定式作主语
1. It's our duty the room every day.
A. to clean B. cleaned C. clean D. cleans(甘肃省)
2. It's hard for us English well.
A. learn B. learns C. to learn D. learning(江西省)
3.建造这座立交桥将花费工人们一年多的时间.
It will the workers over a year the flyover.(北京市海淀区)
4. It's very nice you to get me two tickets the World Cup.
A. for, of B. of, for C. to, for D. of, to(安徽省)
Keys: 1. A 2. C 3. take, to, build 4. B
[简析]动词不定式作主语时,可以直接放在谓语动词前面的主语位置,也可以用先行词it作形式主语,而将真正的主语(不定式)置于后面.常见的句式有:(1)It is +形容词(of sb)to do sth.(2)It is +名词(for sb)to do sth.(3)It takes sb some time to do sth.(4)It is +形容词(for sb)to do sth.句式(1)中常用nice, kind, clever, good, right, wrong, foolish, careless等形容词,与介词of搭配,这些形容词常表述不定式逻辑主语的属性或性质;句式(4)中常用hard, difficult, easy, important等形容词,与介词for搭配,表示不定式表示的动作、行为的性质.
二、动词不定式作宾语
1. He wants ______ some vegetables.
A. buy B. buying C. to buy D. buys (山西省)
2. Don't forget ______ your homework with you when you come to school.
A. to bring B. bringing C. to take D. taking (福建省)
3. He found it very difficult ______.
A. sleeping B. sleepsC. slept D. to fall asleep (湖南省)
Keys: 1. C 2. A 3. D
[简析]在want, like, agree, hope, wish, learn, begin, start, seem, decide, hate, choose, forget, remember等动词后面,可以接不定式作宾语.如果其后接形容词补足语时,则可以用it作形式宾语,而把作真正宾语的不定式放到后面.
三、动词不定式作宾语补足语
1. Robert often asks us ______ his Chinese, so his Chinese is much better than before.
A. help him B. to help him with C. to help with D. helps him with (江苏省)
2. Mr Li often teaches his Japanese friends ______ Chinese food.
A. cook B. cooks C. to cook D. cooked (甘肃省)
Key: 1. B 2. C
[简析]不定式可以用作宾语补足语.后面可以接不定式作宾语补足语的动词有:ask, teach, expect, tell, allow等.
四、动词不定式作状语
1. She went ______ her teacher.
A. to see B. looks C. saw D. seeing (江西省)
2. Meimei likes English very much. She does her best ______ English well.
A. learn B. learning C. to learn D. learns (四川省)
Key: 1. A 2. C
[简析]go, come, try, do / try one's best等动词或短语动词作谓语时,其后常常可以接不定式作目的状语.
3. I'm sorry ______ that.
A. hears B. hearing C. hear D. to hear (河北省)
4. I'm sorry ______ you.
A. trouble B. to trouble C. troubling D. troubled (吉林省)
5. My mother was very glad ______ her old friend.
A. to meet B. meet C. met D. meets (甘肃省)
Keys: 3. D 4. B 5. A
[简析]"be +形容词+ to do sth"结构中的不定式作状语,常表示原因或方式.
6. The panda is so fat that it can't go through the hole.(改为意思相同的句子)
The hole such a fat panda to go through. (广东省)
7. The ice on the lake was so thin that people couldn't skate on it. (改为意思相同的句子)
The ice on the lake wasn't ______ enough ______ people 广东省)
Keys: 6. is, too, small, for 7. thick, for, to, skate, on
[简析]在上述"too +形容词/副词(for sb)to do…"(太……而不能……)和"enough (for sb) to do…"(足以、足够……做……)结构中,不定式作结果状语.
五、动词不定式作定语
1. Would you like something ______?
A. drink B. drinking C. to drink D. drinks (湖北省)
2. I have a lot of homework ______.
A. do B. doing C. did D. to do (河南省)
3. He is not an easy man ______.
A. get on B. to get on C. get on with D. to get on with (山东省)
Key: 1. C 2. D 3. D
[简析]不定式作定语时,常放在被修饰的词语之后,与被修饰的词语为逻辑上的主谓关系或动宾关系;如果不定式的动词是不及物动词,其后要加上必要的介词或副词,构成的短语动词相当于及物动词.
六、不带to的动词不定式
1. We saw him ______ the building and go upstairs.
A. to enter B. enter C. entering D. entered (河南省)
2. So much work usually makes them ______ very tired.
A. to feel B. feels C. feeling D. feel (吉林省)
3. Your father is sleeping. You'd better ______.
A. not wake up him B. not to wake up him
C. not wake him up D. not to wake him up (陕西省)
4. I was made ______ my homework in the afternoon.
A. do B. doing C. to do D. did (贵州省)
Key: 1. B 2. D 3. C 4. C
[简析]1.在see, watch, hear, feel等感官动词和make, have, let等使役动词后面作宾语补足语的不定式不带to.但是在被动语态中,作主语补足语的不定式要带to(let没有被动语态).2.在"had better"后面接不带to的不定式.
七、动词不定式的否定形式
1. Mr Black asked the man the queue.
A. not to jump B. to not jump C. didn't jump D. not jump (广西壮族自治区)
2. The old man told the child ______ noisy.
A. not be B. not to be C. to not be D. be not (湖北省)
3. There is going to ______ an important meeting tomorrow. Please try ______ late.
A. have, not to be B. have, not be
C. be, not to be D. be, not be (内蒙古自治区)
Key: 1. A 2. B 3. C
[简析]动词不定式的否定形式通常是在不定式符号to的前面加上not,如果是不带to的不定式就直接在动词原形前面加上not.
八、某些动词后面接不定式和接动词-ing形式的区别
1. Please stop ______ a rest if you feel tired.
A. to have B. having C. have D. has (广西壮族自治区)
2. ——Why didn't you buy some bread on your way home?
——Sorry, I forgot ______ some money with me.
A. take B. taking C. to take D. took (湖北省)
3. ——Let's have a rest, shall we?
——Not now, I can't stop ______ the letters.
A. write B. to write C. writing D. and write (湖北省)
4. Jim was badly hurt, so he had to stop ______ (walk). (用所给单词的正确形式填空)(四川省)
Key: 1. A 2. C 3. C 4. walking
[简析]一些常见的动词后面接不定式和接动词的-ing形式的区别如下:"stop to do sth"意为"停止正在做的事情去做另外一件事","stop doing sth"意为"停止正在做的事":"remember to do sth"意为"记住去做某事"(事还未做),"remember doing sth"意为"记得做过某事"(事已做):"go on to do sth"意为"接着做某事"(做完一事,接着做另一事),"go on doing sth"意为"继续做某事"(一事未做完接着往下做):"forget to do sth"意为"忘了做某事"(事还未做),"forget doing sth"意为"忘了曾做过某事"(事已做).
5. When I was walking in the street I saw a plane ______ over my head.
A. flies B. flying C. flew D. to fly (福建省)
6. A woman saw it ______ when she was walking past.
A. happen B. happens C. happening D. to happen (黑龙江省)
Key: 5. B 6. A转载请著名来自:(http://WWW.TTXYY.cOM 天天学英语思想汇报范文网)
[简析]在see, hear, watch, feel等感官动词后面可接不带to的不定式,也可接动词的-ing形式作宾语补足语,用不定式表示动作的全过程(动作已结束),用动词的-ing形式表示动作正在进行(动作尚未结束).
九、动词不定式的省略及其符号to的保留
1. Would you like to go to the cinema with us?
Yes,What time are we going to meet?
A. I would B. I would like C. I like to D. I'd like to (浙江省)
2. Would you like to go for a picnic with us?
______. What time are we going to meet?
A. No, I can't B. Yes, I'm glad C. Yes, I'd love to D. I'd like (大连市)
Keys: 1. D 2. C
[简析]在口语中,动词不定式中的动词或短语动词在上下文中重复出现时,第二个动词不定式可以省略,但是to不可省略.这种用法常见于"be glad to","would like (love) to","have to"等结构中.
十、动词不定式的被动式和其他形式
The new hospital ______ is near the factory.
A. build B. builds C. to build D. to be built (青海省)
Key: D
[简析]当不定式的逻辑主语是不定式所表示的动作的承受者(宾语)时,用动词不定式的被动式,即:to be +过去分词;如果不定式所表示的动作发生在谓语动词表示的动作之前,不定式用完成式,即:to have +过去分词;如果不定式表示的动作和谓语动词表示的动作同时发生,用不定式的进行式,即:to be +现在分词
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