1.引导名词性从句，只起连接作用，无具体意义。A story goes that Elizabeth I of England liked nothing more than being surrounded by clever and qualified noblemen at court.
2.关系代词，用于限制性定语从句。如：Is this the reason that he explained at the meeting for his carelessness in his work?
3.程度副词，等于so.如：Sometimes it was a bit boring to work there because there wasn’t always that much to do.
4.用于强调句型中，起连接作用。如：Why! I have nothing to confess. What is it that you want me to say?
5.替代词，既可替代可数名词，表特指;又可替代不可数名词，后接of。如：I’m moving to countryside because the air there is much fresher than that in the city.
【考例1】The traditional view is _ _ we sleep because our brain is“programmed”to make us do so.
A. when B. why C. whether D. that (D)
【考例2】-----Where did you get to know her?
------It was on the farm______we worked.
A. that B. there C. which D. where (D)
【考例3】Little joy can equal_______of a surprising ending when you read stories.
A. that B. those C. any D. some (A)
【考例4】Having checked the doors were closed, and _____all the lights were off, the boy opened the door to his bedroom.
A. why B. that C. when D. where (B)
【考例5】----He got his first book published. It turned out to be a bestseller.
------_____was in 2000 when he was still in college.
A. that; This B. this; It
C. it; This D.that; It (D)
【考例6】The English spoken in the United States is only slightly different from ______ spoken in England.(08全国卷I，33)
A. which B. what C. that D. the one (C)
【考例7】 It was in New Zealand ___ Elizabeth first met Mr. Smith.(08全国卷II，20)
A. that B. how C. which D. when (A)
【考例8】 Animals suffered at the hands of Man ___ they were destroyed by people to make way for agricultural land to provide food for more people.(08江西卷，34)
A. in which B. for which C. so that D. in that (D)
【考例9】 It was along the Mississippi River _______ Mark Twain spent much of his childhood.(08天津卷，8)
A. how B. which C. that D. where (C)
【考例10】 It was not until midnight they reached the camp site.(08重庆卷，22)
A. that B. when C. while D. as (A)
【考例11】—Could you tell me how to get to Victoria Street?
—Victoria Street? ______ is where the Grand Theatre is.(08辽宁卷,26)
A. Such B. There C. That D. This (C)
【考例12】 —Shall we go out for dinner tonight? —______.(08浙江卷，20)
A. You are right B. It must be funny
C. That sounds great D. Have a nice time (C)
【考例13】I’ve heard a whisper ____ David and Heather are heading for marriage.(08四川延考区，4)
A.what B. which C. who D. that (D)
1.引导名词性从句，担任句子成分。如：A modern city has been set up in what was a wasteland ten years ago.
2.疑问代词，指不定范围的“什么”。如：What do you think I should do to make up for the lost time?
3.whatever引导名词性从句和让步状语从句。如：These wild flowers are so special that I would do whatever I can to save them.
4.用于感叹句中。如：What terrible weather we’ve been having these days!
What’s up?(相当于What’s happening?)
What a shame!(表遗憾)
---Susan, will you please go and empty that drawer?
---What for? (NMET2004)
【考例1】______matters most in learning English is enough practice.
A. What B. Why C. Where D. Which (A)
【考例2】_____he referred to in his article was unknown to the general reader.
A. That B. What C. Whether D. Where (B)
【考例3】_____worries me is the way he keeps changing his mind.
A.This B. That C. What D. It (C)
【考例4】The seaside here draws a lot of tourists every summer. Warm sunshine and soft sands make _____it is.
A. what B. which C. how D. where (A)
【考例5】Choosing the right dictionary depends on _____you want to use it for.
A. what B. why C. how D. whether (A)
【考例6】By improving reading skills, you can read faster and understand more of_____you read.
A. that B. what C. which D. whether (B)
【考例7】 The companies are working together to create ____ they hope will be the best means of transport in the 21st century.
A. which B. that C. what D. who (C)
【考例8】 _____ is known to us all is that the 2008 Olympic Games will take place in Beijing.(08福建卷，27)
A. It B. What C. As D. Which (B)
【考例9】When asked _____ they needed most, the kids said they wanted to feel important and loved. (08湖南卷，29)
A. what B. why C. whom D. which (A)
【考例10】 _____ was most important to her, she told me, was her family.(08山东卷，23)
A. It B. This C. What D. As (C)
【考例11】 People in Chongqing are proud of they have achieved in the past ten years.(08重庆卷，25)
A. that B. which C. what D. how (C)
【考例12】Some children want to challenge themselves by learning a language different from ______ their parents speak at home.(08浙江卷，6)
A. what B. that C. which D. one (A)
【考例13】 The lawyer seldom wears anything other than a suit ______ the season.(08全国卷I，25)
A. whatever B. wherever C. whenever D. however (A)
1.从属连词，引导地点状语从句。如：The famous scientist grew up where he was born and in 1930 he came to Shanghai.
2.关系副词。用于定语从句。如：There were dirty marks on her trousers where she had wiped her hands.
3.连接副词，用于名词性从句。如：You are saying that everyone should be equal and this is where I disagree.
【考例1】After graduation she reached a point in her career _______ she needed to decide what to do.
A. that B. what C. which D.where (D) (此题考查定语从句)
【考例2】Those successful deaf dancers think that dancing is an activity _______ sight matters more than hearing.
A.when B.whose C.which D.where (D)
【考例3】Some pre-school children go to a day care center, _______ they learn simple games and songs.
A. then B. there C. which D. where (D)
【考例4】The village has developed a lot ______ we learned farming two years ago.
A. when B. which C. that D. where (D)
【考例5】Today, we’ll discuss a number of cases _______ beginners of English fail to use the language properly.
A. which B.as C. why D. where (D)
【解析】此题考查定语从句。先行词cases在定语从句中作状语，相当于in those cases,译为“情况”“境况”。选D.
【考例6】-----Where did you get to know her?
-----It was on the farm _______ we worked.
A. that B. there C. which D. where (D)
【考例7】Why not try your luck downtown, Bob? That’s _______ the best jobs are.
A. where B .what C. when D. why (A)
【考例8】 All the neighbors admire this family. _________the parents are treating their child like a friend.
A. why B. where C. which D. that (B)
【考例9】 I’ll give you y friend’s home address, ____ I can be reached most evenings.(08北京卷，28)
A. which B. when C. whom D. where (D)
【考例10】 Later in this chapter cases will be introduced to readers __ consumer complaints have resulted in changes in the law.(08江西卷，35)
A. where B. when C. who D. which (A)
【考例11】 You’d better not leave the medicine _____ kids can get at it.(08山东卷，31)
A. even if B. which C. where D. so that (C)
【考例12】 Tomorrow is Tom’s birthday. Have you got any idea the party is to be held?(08陕西卷，8)
A. what B. which C. that D. where (D)
【考例13】 They will fly to Washington, they plan to stay for two or three days.(08重庆卷，21)
A. where B. there C. which D. when (A)
1.疑问代词，指一定范围的“什么”，常译作“哪一个”。如：Which do you prefer to kill your spare time---watching TV or reading?
2.关系代词，也可指代整个句子，但有别于as,不能置于句首;“介词+which”用法一直是高考热点。如：The factory produces half a million pairs of shoes every year, 80% of which are sold abroad.
3.连接代词，用于名词性从句中。如：I read about it in some book or other, does it matter which it was?
【考例1】Chan’s restaurant on Baker Street, _________ used to be poorly run, is now a successful business.
A. that B.which C. who D.where (B)
【考例2】By serving others, a person focuses on someone other than himself or herself, _______ can be very eye-opening and rewarding.
A. who B. which C. what D. that (B)
【考例3】Human facial expressions differ from those of animals in the degree _______ they can be controlled on purpose.
A. with wich B. to which C. of which D. for which (B)
【考例4】It is reported that two schools, ________ are being built in my hometown, will open next year.
A. they both B. which both C. both of them D. both of which (D)
【考例5】He was educated at the local high school, _______ he went on to Beijing Uiversity?
A. after which B. after that C. in which D.in that (A)
【考例6】His movie won several awards at the film festival, ________ was beyond his wildest dream.
A. which B. that C. where D. it (A)
【考例7】Eric received training in computer for one year, _______ he found a job in big company.
A. after that B. after which C. after it D. after this (B)
【考例8】 The road conditions there turned out to be very good, ___ was more than we could expect.(08全国卷II，16)
A. it B. what C. which D. that (C)
【考例9】 By nine o’clock, all the Olympic torch bearers had reached the top of Mount Qomolangma, ____ appeared a rare rainbow soon.(08福建卷，31)
A. of which B. on which C. from which D. above which (D)
【考例10】 The growing speed of a plant is influenced by a number of factors, __________ are beyond our control.(08湖南卷，31)
A.most of them B. most of which C. most of what D. most of that (B)
【考例11】 The man pulled out a gold watch, were made of small diamonds.(08陕西卷,13)
A. the hands of whom B. whom the hands of
C. which the hands of D. the hands of which (D)
【考例12】 For many cities in the world, there is no room to spread our further, _______ New York is an example.(08四川卷，4)
A. for which B. in which C. of which D. from which (C)
【考例13】 The Science Museum, ____________ we visited during a recent trip to Britain, is one of London’s tourist attractions.(08江苏卷，24)
A. which B. what C. that D. where (A)
【考例14】 Yesterday she sold her car, ______ she bought a month ago.(08浙江卷，8)
A. whom B. where C. that D. which (D)
1.替代词it，替代同一事物而非同类事物，也可指代前面整个句子。如：Tom’s mother kept telling him that he should work harder, but it didn’t help.
2.先行词it，用于名词性从句中，作形式主语或宾语。如：I like it in the autumn when the weather is clear and bright.
3.引导词it，用于强调句型中。如：It was not until midnight that he went back home after the experiment.
-----I’d like to take a week’s holiday.
-----Forget it. We’re too busy.
Bill’s aim is to inform the viewers that cigarette advertising on TV is illegal, isn’t it?
【考例1】I don’t mind her criticizing me, but ______ is how she does it that I object to.
A. it B. that C. this D. which (A)
【考例2】------Have you heard the latest news?
-------No, what _____?
A. is it B. is there C. are they D. are those (A)
【考例3】He didn’t make _____ clear when and where the meeting would be held.
A. this B. that C. it D. these (C)
【考例4】______felt funny watching myself on TV.
A. One B. This C. It D. That (C)
【考例5】In my opinion, life in the twenty-first century is much easier than ______.
A. that used to be B. it is used to
C. it was used to D. it used to be (D)
【考例6】 ----How much do I owe you for lunch? ----______. It’s nothing.(08天津卷，9)
A. You’re welcome B. Forget it C. With pleasure D. That’s right (B)
1.引导时间状语从句。如：Don’t be afraid of asking for help when it is needed.
2.类似并列连词，表at that time, 常用于be about to do ... when, hardly...when等句型中。如：
We were swimming in the lake when suddenly the storm started.
3.表原因，同since。如：Why do you want a new job when you’ve got such a good one already?
4.连接副词，用于名词性从句中。如：I remember when this used to be a quiet village.
5.关系副词，用于定语从句中。如：The film brought the hours back to me when I was taken good care of in that far-away village.
6.whenever引导名词性从句和让步状语从句。如：You can eat food free in my restaurant whenever you like.
7.表让步，同even if.如：The enemy held out when they must have known there was no hope.
【考例1】-----Where’s that report?
-----I brought it to you _____you were in Mr.Black’s office yesterday.
A. if B. when C. because D. before (B)
【考例2】The book was written in 1946, ________ the education system has witnessed great changes.(07山东卷，35)
A. when B. during when C. since then D.since when (D) (考查状语从句)
【考例3】 Nancy enjoyed herself so much ______ she visited her friends in Sydney last year.(08福建卷，28)
A. that B. which C. when D. where (C)
【考例4】 Occasions are quite rare ____ I have the time to spend a day with my kids.(08山东卷，26)
A. who B. which C. why D. when (D)
【考例5】 There were some chairs left over _____ everyone had sat down.(08四川卷，6)
A. when B. until C. that D. where (A)
【考例6】 The last time we had great fun was _____ we were visiting the Water Park.(08天津卷，12)
A. where B. how C. when D. why (C)
【考例7】 I used to love that film ______ I was a child, but I don’t feel it that way any more.(08江苏卷，32)
A. once B. when C. since D. although (B)
【考例8】Jane is back in May, by______ the new house should be finished.(08四川延考区，14)
A. which B. that C. whom D. when (D)
【考例1】I looked under _______ bed and found _______ book I lost last week. (07北京卷)
A. the; a B. the; the C. /; the D.the; / (B)
【考例2】An accident happened at _______ crossroads a few meters away from ______ bank.
A. a;a B. /; a C. /; the D. the; / (A)
【考例3】Alexander Gaham Bell invented ______telephone in 1876.(NMET1991)
A. / B. a C. the D. one (C)
【考例4】Nowadays, _ __ __mobile phone is _ ___ popular means of communication.
A. the; a B. a; / C. the; the D. a; the (A)
【考例5】We have every reason to believe that ________ 2008 Beijing Olympic Games will be _______ success.
A. /; a B. the; / C. the; a D. a; a (C)
【考例6】For many Beijingers, dreams of living in _______ green area are becoming _____ reality.
A. a; a B. the; the C. /; / D. a; the (A)
【考例7】 It’s not ___ good idea to drive for four hours without ___ break.(08全国卷I，8)
A. a ; a B. the ; a C. the ; the D. a ; the (A)
【考例8】 Have you heard news? The price of petrol is going up again!(08湖南卷，22)
A. the, the B. 不填，the C. the, 不填 D. 不填，不填 (C)
【考例9】 --- I am so sorry to have come late for the meeting.
--- It is not your fault. With __ rush-hour traffic and __ heavy rain, it is no wonder you were late.(08江西卷，30)
A. a; a B. the; the C. /; / D. /; a (B)
【考例10】 Students should be encouraged to use ___ Internet as ____ resource.(08山东卷，21)
A. 不填;a B. 不填;the C. the; the D. the; a (D)
【考例11】 I ate sandwich while I was waiting for 20:08 train.(08陕西卷，10)
A. the, a B. the, the C. a, the D. a, a (C)
【考例12】 In many places in China, bicycle is still____ poplar means of transportation.(08重庆卷，27)
A. a; the B. /; a C. the; a D. the; the (C)
【考例13】21. We went right round to the west coast by __________ sea instead of driving across _________ continent.(08江苏卷，21)
A. the … the B. / … the C. the … / D. / … / (B)
【考例14】 My neighbor asked me to go for ______ walk, but I don’t think I’ve got ______ energy.(08辽宁卷，24)
A. a; 不填 B. the; the C. 不填;the D. a; the (D)
【考例15】 In the United States, there is always ____ flow of people to areas of ______ country where more jobs can be found. (08四川卷，8)
A. a; the B. the ; a C. the; the D. a; a (A)
【考例16】 ______ apple fell from the tree and hit him on ______ head.(08浙江卷，2)
A. An; the B. The; the C. An; 不填 D. The; 不填(A)
----I’m going to the post office.
---While you’re there, can you get me some stamps? (NMET1999)
2.并列连词，表两相对照。如：The cost of living in Glasgow is among the lowest in Britain, while the quality of life is probably one of the highest. (天津2006)
3.引导让步状语从句，表“部分接受，并非全部”。如：While I accept that he is not perfect, I do actually like the person. (江苏2006)
【考例1】________ I really don’t like the art, I find his work impressive.(07山东卷，29)
A. As B. Since C. If D. While (D)
【考例2】I’d like to study law at university _______ my cousin prefers geography. (07四川卷，29)
A. though B. as C. while D. for (C)
【考例3】 ______the Internet is of great help, I don’t think it’s a food idea to spend too much time on it. (08湖南卷，33)
A. If B. While C. Because D. As (B)
【考例4】 In some places women are expected to earn money ____ men work at home and raise their children.(08四川卷，12)
A. but B. while C. because D. though (B)
1.关系代词，引导限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句。如：As is often the case, we have worked out the production plan.
2.用作介词，表“作为”或用在动词treat, recognize等之后。如：I feel that one of my main duties as a teacher is to help the students to become better learners.
Mother was worried because little Alice was ill, especially as father was away in France.
As the day went on, the weather got worse.
It is reported that the United States uses twice as much energy as the whole of Europe.
4.as常见搭配：as good as (与……一样好;实际上，几乎等于) as well (as) (也;与……一样好)， as much(如此)，as far as (据……)，not so much as (不如……)等。如：As long as I know the money is safe, I shall not worry about it.
-----How far apart do they live?
-----As far as I know, they live in the same neighbourhood.
John plays football as well as, if not better than, David.
【考例1】________ , his idea was accepted by all the people at the meeting.
A. Strange as might it sound B. As it might sound strange
C. As strange it might sound D. Strange as it might sound (D)
【考例2】The Beatles, _______ many of you are old enough to remember, came from Liverpool.
A. since B. when C. as D. while (C)
【考例3】His plan was such a good one _______ we all agreed to accept it.
A. as B. that C. so D. and (B)
【考例4】John is the tallest boy in the class,______ according to himself.
A. five foot eight as tall as B. as tall as five foot eight
C. as five foot eight as D. as tall five foot eight as (B)
【考例5】31. —Have you got any idea for the summer vacation?
—I don’t mind where we get ______ there’s sun, sea and beach.
A. as if B. as long as C. now that D. in order that
【考例6】 My English teacher’s humor was ____ make every student burst into laughter.(08江西卷，22)
A. so as to B. such as to C. such that D. so that (B)
【考例7】 Ten years ago the population of our village was______ that of theirs.(08陕西卷，16)
A. as twice large as B. twice as large as
C. twice as much as D. as twice much as (B)
【考例8】 I like this jacket better than that one, but it costs almost three times______.(08浙江卷，3)
A. as much B. as many C. so much D. so many (A)
【考例9】 Let’s learn to use the problem we are facing _____ a stepping-stone to future success.(08全国卷I，24)
A. to B. for C. as D. by (C)当作
【考例10】 –I think you’d better type this letter again before Mr. Smith see it.(08江西卷，21)
-- Oh, dear! _______
A. Who cares? B. No problem
C. I don’t mind at all D. Is it as bad as that? (D)
1.引导时间状语从句，“在……之前”，常见于“It will be...(long)before....”句型。如：It was evening before we reached the little town of Winchester.
It will not be long before we know the result of the experiment.
2.用于祈使句中，既表时间，又表隐含条件，可译作“要不然、否则”，近似or。如：Get out before it got worse.
Put back the book where it is before it gets torn.
3.从属连词，“宁愿……与其……”用法近似于would rather...than...如：He will die before he tells the secret.
4.从属连词，有“不知不觉某事已经完成”的意思，常见于“...before I know it”。如：We had come to the store before we know it.
5.副词，“从前，以前”，常与完成时连用。如：They have known each other long before.
【考例1】The field research will take Joan and Paul about five months; it will be a long time____we meet them again.
A. after B. before C. since D. when (B)
【考例2】He was told that it would be at least three more months_____he could recover and return to work.(07福建卷，29)
A. when B. before C. since D. that (B)
【考例3】 I’m sorry you’ve been waiting so long, but it’ll still be some time ____ Brian get back.(08北京卷，34)
A. before B. since C. till D. after (A)
1.并列连词，用法类似于yet,但在“Excuse me/I’m sorry...but”结构中，只能使用but。如：Excuse me for breaking in, but I have some news for you. (NMET2002)
2.用作介词，表“除了”，但不同于besides, 后可接动词不定式。若前有do的适当形式，后续动词前要省略to。如：Sandy could do nothing but admit to his teacher that he was wrong.(上海春2001)
3.从属连词，表“无一例外”，用于否定句中，如：Never does a day pass but we need food.
【考例1】Reality is not the way you wish things to be, nor the way they appear to be, ______ the way they actually are.(07湖南卷，21)
A. as B. or C. but D.and (C)
【考例2】Between the two generations, it is often not their age, _______ their education that causes misunderstanding.(07全国卷I，31)
A. like B. as C. or D.but (D)
【考例3】------Will you join us in the game?
------Thank you, ______. (07江西卷，21)
A. but why not? B. but I’d rather not,
C. and I won’t. D. and I’ll join. (B)
【考例4】 I thought we’d be late for the concert, we ended up getting there ahead of time. (08湖南卷，23)
A. but B. or C. so D. for (A)
【考例5】 It is often said that the joy of traveling is __________ in arriving at your destination ___________ in the journey itself.(08江苏卷，27)
A. / … but B. / … or C. not … or D. not … but (D)
【考例6】13. Stand over there ___ you’ll be able to see the oil painting better.(08全国卷I，13)
A. but B. till C. and D. or (C)
【考例7】 The artist was born poor, poor he remained all his life.(08重庆卷，32)
A. and B. or C. . but D. so (A)
1.程度副词，表“十分，很”常置于“so+adj.+a/an+n.”“not so+adj./adv.+(冠词+名词)as+...”“so+(adj./adv) that....”结构中。如：Can you believe that in such a rich country there should be so many poor people?
He speaks English well indeed, but of course not so fluently as a native speaker. (上海2004)
So difficult did I feel it to live in an English-speaking country that I determined to learn English.
2.从句性替代词，用于“so did I, I did so, so I did”以及“I hope so”等结构中表肯定替代。如：-----Father, You promised!
-----Well, so I did. But it was you who didn’t keep your word first.
3.并列连词表因果。如：The shop doesn’t open until 11a.m. so it loses a lot of business.
4.固定搭配，常见于if so, even so, or so, so as to等短语中。如：
Your uncle seems to be a good driver; even so, I wouldn’t dare to travel in his car.
All these gifts must be mailed immediately so as to be received in time for Christmas.
My parents will move back into town in a year or so.
【考例1】-----My room gets very cold at night.
A. So is mine B. So mine is C. So does mine D. So mine does (C)
【考例2】-----You should apologize to her, Barry.
------_______, but it’s not going to be easy.(07浙江卷，3)
A. I suppose so B. I feel so C. I prefer to D. I like to (A)
【考例3】 The weather was ______ cold that I didn’t like to leave my room.
A. really B. such C. too D. so (D)(08全国卷I，32)
【考例4】 I haven’t seen Ann for ____ long that I’ve forgotten what she looks like.(08四川卷，1)
A. such B. very C. so D. too (C)
【考例5】 -----Do you have a minute? I’ve got something to tell you.
-----Ok, ______ you make it short.(08安徽卷，31)
A. now that B. if only C. so long as D. every time (C)
I had to buy all these books because I didn’t know which one was the best.
------You’re always working .Come on, let’s go shopping.
------All you ever want to do is going shopping.
The husband gave his wife all his income every month in order to please her.
4.常见搭配有：in all(总计，总而言之)，after all (毕竟，别忘了)，above all(尤其，首先)，all the same(尽管如此)等。如：
I’d like to buy a house—modern, comfortable and above all in a quiet neighborhood.
People may have different opinions about Karen, but I admire her. After all, she is a great musician. (NMET2004)
【考例1】That’s an unpleasant thing to say about your father after ______ he’s done for you.
A. something B. anything C. all D. that (C)
【考例2】I had to buy _______ these books because I didn’t know which one was the best.
A. both B. none C. neither D. all (D)
【考例3】It is easy to do the repair. _______ you need is a hammer and some nails.
A. Something B. All C. Both D. Everything (B)
【考例4】-----You’re always working. Come on, let’s go shopping.
------_______ you ever want to do is going shopping.
A. Anything B. Something C. All D. That (C)
【考例5】 –How do you find your new classmates?
– Most of them are kind, but ____ is so good to me as Bruce.(08福建卷，21)
A. none B. no one C. every one D. some one (A)
They had a pleasant chat over a cup of coffee.
Children over 16 are allowed to enter alone.
You can’t wear a blue jacket over that shirt---it’ll look terrible.
I don’t want to talk about it over the telephone.
I can’t make the decision. He is over me in the office.
【考例1】You can’t wear a blue jacket ______ that shirt—it’ll look terrible.
A. on B. above C. up D. over (D)
【考例2】They had a pleasant chat _______ a cup of coffee.
A. for B. with C. during D. over (D)
【解析】to chat over a cup of coffee 意思是边喝咖啡边聊天。Over“在(做)........期间，边......边.......”
They came in by the back door.
The train leaves at 6:00p.m. So I have to be at the station by 5:40p.m. at the latest.
It’s a special experience to visit the lake by night.
3.表程度。如：Luckily, the bullet narrowly missed the captain by an inch.
The number of the employees has grown from 1,000 to 1,200 . This means it has risen by 20 percent.
4.表方位，被接触身体的一部分，与冠词the连用，常与表“抓、握、击、打”类动词连用。如：He took her by the arm and led her across the street.
As a rule, domestic servants doing odd jobs are paid by the hour.
6.表方式，强调使动对象，常用于被动语态中的动词后;使用某种手段或方法，使用某种交通工具等。如：No one helped me. I did it all by myself.
7.表原因，“由于……”常见于by accident(偶然)，by mistake (由于疏忽)等。如：
We hadn’t planned to meet. We met by chance.
【考例1】-----Didn’t you have a good time at the party?
------Of course I did. As a matter of fact, I had such fun that time seemed to _______ so quickly.
A. go by B. go away C. go out D. go over (A)
【考例2】Luckily, the bullet narrowly missed the captain _______ an inch.
A. by B. at C. to D. from (A)
【考例3】-----When do we need to pay the balance?
------_________ September 30.
A. In B. By C. During D. With (B)
【考例4】 A great man shows his greatness _____ the way he treats little man.
A. under B. with C. on D. by (D)
【考例5】 If you really have to leave during the meeting, you’d better leave ____ the back door.(08北京卷，33)
A. for B. by C. across D. out (B)
It was a pity that the great writer died with his works unfinished.
With two exams to worry about, I have to work really hard this weekend.
The prisoner was brought in , with his hands tied behind this back.
American women usually identify their best friend as someone with whom they can talk frequently.
3.具有。如：Have you found the book with a green cover? I need to use it now.
Rose was wild with joy at the result of the examination.
Did she get the pen with which she was going to write a letter?
-----What do you want with those old boxes?
-----To put things in when I move to the new flat.
7.表比较，常见于compared with, as with 等。如：
As with running, learning English needs will.
【考例1】 John received an invitation to dinner, and with his work_____, he gladly accepted it.
A. finished B. finishing C. having finished D. was finished (A)
【考例2】------Come on, please give me some ideas about the project.
-------Sorry. With so much work______my mind, I almost break down.
A. filled B. filling C. to fill D. being filled (B)
【考例3】 You have no idea how she finished the relay race ____ her foot wounded so much.(08福建卷，34)
A. for B. when C. with D. while (C)
I live beyond the main road while he comes beyond the sea.
2.表时间，“超过，晚于”，after较常见。如：She never stays out beyond 9o’clock.
I am sorry it’s beyond my power to make a final decision on the project.
It’s quite beyond me why such things have been allowed to happen.
They have nothing in common beyond their hobbies of collecting stamps.
【考例1】-------Can he take charge of the computer company?
--------I’m afraid it’s _______ his ability.
A. beyond B. within C. of D. to (A)
【考例2】This new model of car is so expensive that it is _______ the reach of those with average income.
A. over B. within C. beyond D. below (C)
【考例3】 --- Why do you suggest we buy a new machine?--- Because the old one has been damaged ___________.(08江苏卷,28)
A. beyond reach B. beyond repair C. beyond control D. beyond description (B)
【考例4】 Elizabeth has already achieved success her wildest dreams.(08陕西卷，19)
A. at B. beyond C. within D. upon (B)
I should pay Tracy a visit, but I’m not sure whether I will have time this Sunday.
2.表懊悔、责备等，should have done表本应该做却没做，其否定形式should not have done则表本不该做但已做了。如：
I was really anxious about you. You shouldn’t have left home without a word.
There shouldn’t be any difficulty about passing the road test since you have practiced a lot in the driving school.
It’s nearly seven o’clock, Jack should be here at any moment.
------Don’t you think it necessary that he not be sent to Miami but to New York?
------I agree, but the problem is that he has refused to.
You can’t imagine that a well-behaved gentleman should be so rude to a lady.
【考例1】------My cat’s really fat.
-------You ______ have given her so much food.(07浙江卷，15)
A. wouldn’t B. couldn’t C. shouldn’t D. mustn’t (C)
【考例2】-----I think I’ll give Bob a ring.
------You ______ . You haven’t been in touch with him for ages.
A. will B. may C. have to D. should (D)
【考例3】------How is your tour around the North Lake? Is it beautiful?
-------It ______ be, but it is now heavily polluted. (07全国卷I,27)
A. will B. would C. should D. must (C)
【考例4】------Turn off the TV, Jack. _______ your homework now?
-------Mum, just ten minutes, please.(07辽宁卷，30)
A. Should you be doing B. Shouldn’t you be doing
C. Couldn’t you be doing D. Will you be doing (B)
【考例5】I told your friend how to get to the hotel, but perhaps I _______ have driven her there.(07陕西卷，14)
A. could B. must C. might D.should (D)
【考例6】 --- I’m sorry. I ___________ at you the other day. --- Forget it. I was a bit out of control myself.(08江苏卷，35)
A. shouldn’t shout B. shouldn’t have shouted
C. mustn’t shout D. mustn’t have shouted
1.表能力，在肯定句中指过去做某事的能力，泛指一般能力用could,只表具备做某事的能力，但并不表明是否干成。如：If I could plan to do anything I wanted to, I’d like to go to Tibet and travel through as much of it as possible.
2.表懊悔、遗憾，could have done表过去未曾实现的动作，即本能够干好的事却没干好。如：He paid for a seat, when he could have entered free.
I could have finished the job in the given time but the computer didn’t work.
How can you say that you really understand the whole story if you have covered only part of the article?
The World Wide Web is sometimes jokingly called the World Wide Wait because it can be very slow.
-----Isn’t that Ann’s husband over there?
-----No, it can’t be him. I’m sure he doesn’t wear glasses.
5.表许可，在请求对方许可时，can 在口语中常用;在准许对方做某事时，答语用can,不用could。如：A left-luggage office is a place where bags can be left for a short time, especially at a railway station.
------Could I borrow your dictionary?
-----Yes, of course you can.
【考例1】The biggest problem for most plants, which ______ just get up and run away when threatened, is that animals like to eat them.(07湖南卷，24)
A. shan’t B. can’t C. needn’t D. mustn’t (B)
【考例2】My MP4 player isn’t in my bag. Where _______ I have put it?(07福建卷，25)
A. can B. must C. should D. would (A)
【考例3】----Do you know where David is? I couldn’t find him anywhere.
-----Well. He _______ have gone far—his coat’s still here.(05湖北卷，19)
A. shouldn’t B. mustn’t C. can’t D. won’t (C)
【考例4】How ________ you say that you really understand the whole story if you have covered only part of the article?(03上海卷，29)
A. can B. must C. need D. may (A)
【考例5】You ______ be tired----you’ve only been working for an hour.(04四川卷，29)
A. must not B. won’t C. can’t D. may not (C)
【考例6】 It is usually warm in my hometown in March, but it _____ be rather cold sometime.(08福建卷，24)
A. must B. can C. should D. would (B)
【考例7】 You don’t have to know the name of the author to find a book. You ____find the book by the title. (08湖南卷，28)
A. must B. need C. can D. would (C)
【考例8】 –What sort of house do you want to have? Something big? --Well, it be big--that’s not important.(08陕西卷，9)
A. mustn’t B. needn’t C. can’t D. won’t (B)
【考例9】 She ______ have left school, for her bike is still here.(08天津卷，6)
A. can’t B. wouldn’t C. shouldn’t D. needn’t (A)
【考例10】 Peter ______ be really difficult at times even though he’s a nice person in general.(08辽宁卷，22)
A. shall B. should C. can D. must (C)
【考例11】 You ______ be hungry already — you had lunch only two hours ago!(08浙江卷，11)
A. wouldn’t B. can’t C. mustn’t D. needn’t (B)
1.表推测，仅用于肯定句中，语气最为肯定;对过去的推测用must have done;mustn’t表禁止，不用于表推测。如：
Tom, you mustn’t leave all your clothes on the floor like this!
He must have completed his work; otherwise, he wouldn’t be enjoying himself by the seaside.
Children under 12 years of age in that country must be under adult supervision when in a public library.
John, look at the time. Must you play the piano at such a late hour?
【考例1】In crowded places like airports and railway stations, you ______ take care of your luggage.(07北京卷，26)
A. can B. may C. must D. will (C)
【考例2】-------Guess what! I have got A for my term paper.
--------Great! You _______ read a lot of work into it.(07上海卷，29)
A. must B. should C. must have D. should have (C)
【考例3】The teacher _____ have thought Johnson was worth it or she wouldn’t have wasted time on him, I suppose.(07安徽卷，23)
A. should B. can C. would D. must (D)
【考例4】------She looks very happy. She _______ have passed the exam.
------I guess so. It’s not difficult after all.(07江苏卷，22)
A. should B. could C. must D. might (C)
-----I hear you’ve got a set of valuable Australian coins. May I have a look?
------Excuse me. Is this the right way to the Summer Palace?
------Sorry, I am not sure. But it might be.
You might just as well tell the manufacture that male customers may not like the design of the furniture.
【考例1】-----Where is my dictionary? I remember I put it here yesterday.
-----You _______ it in the wrong place.(07江西卷，27)
A. must put B. should have put C. might put D. might have put (D)
【考例2】We ______ have proved great adventures, but we have done the greatest march ever made in the past 10 years.(06天津卷)
A. needn’t B. may not C. shouldn’t D. mustn’t (B)
【考例3】-----Excuse me. Is this the right way to te Summer Palace?
------Sorry, I am not sure. But it ______ be.(04湖北卷，26)
A. might B. will C. must D. can (A)
【考例4】-----I hear you’ve got a set of valuable Australian coins. ______ I have a look?
A. Do B. May C. Shall D. should (B)
【考例5】 Liza ___ well not want to go on the trip --- she hates traveling.(08全国卷II，17)
A. will B. can C. must D. may (D)
【考例6】 Although this ____ sound like a simple task, great care is needed.(08四川卷，10)
A. must B. may C. shall D. should (B)
【考例7】 ---I can’t find my purse anywhere.---You have lost it while shopping.(08重庆卷，30)
A. may B. can C. should D. would (A)
“The interest shall be divided into five parts, according to the agreement made by both sides”, declared the judge.
It has been announced that candidates shall remain in their seats until all the papers have been collected.
----The room is so dirty. Shall we clean it?
----Excuse me, but I want to use your computer to type a report.
----You shan’t have my computer if you don’t take care of it.
【考例1】-----What does the sign over there read?
------“No person _______ smoke or carry a lighted cigarette, cigar or pipe in this area.”
A. will B. may C. shall D. must (C)
【考例2】-----Excuse me, but I want to use your computer to type a report.
-----You ______ have my computer if you don’t take care of it.
A. shan’t B. might not C. needn’t D. shouldn’t (A)
【考例3】-----What’s the nurse?
-----Khulaifi. _____ I spell that for you?
A. Shall B.Would C. Can D. Might (A)
1.表将来。通常不用于时间、条件的状语从句，而用一般现在时代替。但表意志的will是if所引导从句中的主语的意志、好意、主动等。 If you run, you may be in time. (跑步的话，你可能来得及。) If you’ll listen to me, I’ll tell you the truth.(假如你愿意听我说，我就告诉你实情。)
I will marry you whatever happens. This door won’t shut.
3.表推测。“当是……，似为……”。如：That will be your book. You will have heard of it.
4.表习惯、习性、倾向。译作“常……，易于……，毕竟……”My car will sometimes break down. Boys will be boys.
5.表可能性、能力。译作“能……”。 This hall will seat five hundred. That will do.
------Who will turn off the lights.
【考例1】------We have booked a room for today and tomorrow.
A. I’m sure. B. My pleasure C. It’s right. D. I’ll check. (D)
【考例2】------Mr. Gordon asked me to remind you of the meeting this afternoon.Don’t forget it!
------OK. I _______.
A. won’t B. don’t C. will D. do (A)
【考例3】-----Write to me when you get home.
A. I must B. I should C. I will D. I can (C)
【考例4】Turn on the television or open a magazine and you ______ advertisements showing happy families. (04湖南卷，25)
A. will often see B. often see C. are often seeing D. have often seen (A)
【考例5】 John promised his doctor he ________ not smoke, and he has smoked ever since.(08北京卷，21)
A. might B. should C. could D. would. (D)
【考例6】We had to make the corrections by hand as the computer do them for us.(08四川延考区，12)
A. mightn’t B. needn’t C. shouldn’t D. wouldn’t (D)
He lived with his parents until he graduated from college.
He practiced running until he was tired out.
He waited for him until he came back.
He didn’t go to bed until he had finished his work.
They didn’t reach the village until it was dark.
He didn’t come until he had gone over his lessons.
3.用于强调句型“It is not until......that......”，如：
It was not until the professor came that we began the experiment.
Not until he graduated did he succeed in obtaining the compound.
【考例1】It is difficult for us to learn a new lesson in life ________ we’ve actually had that lesson. (07天津卷，8)
A. until B. after C. since D. when (A)
【考例2】It ______ we had stayed together for a couple of weeks _______ I found we had a lot in common.(07浙江卷，10)
A. was until; when B. was until; that
C. wasn’t until; when D. wasn’t until; that (D)
(1)A: You can’t enter the hall if you have no ticket.
B: You can’t enter the hall unless you have a ticket.
(2)A: Don’t come if I don’t call you.
B: Don’t come unless I call you.
Unless (he is) in uniform, he doesn’t look like a policeman.
The girl never give in unless wrong.
Unless repaired, the machine is of no use.
【考例1】I won’t call you ______ something unexpected happens.(07全国卷I，26)
A. unless B. whether C. because D.while (A)
【考例2】Most birds find it safe to sleep in the trees, but ______ they have eggs or young chicks, they don’t use a nest.(07湖南卷，33)
A. why B. how C. unless D. where (C)
【考例3】 A small car is big enough for a family of three ____ you need more space for baggage.
A. once B. because C. if D. unless (D)(08全国卷II，7)
【考例4】 We’ll have a picnic in the park this Sunday _____ it rains or it’s very cold.(08天津卷，1)
A. since B. if C. unless D. until (C)
【考例5】 Don’t promise anything ______ you are one hundred percent sure.(08浙江卷，16)
A. whether B. after C. how D. unless (D)
Both of the flowers are very beautiful.= The flowers are both very beautiful.
Both of his children are not college students.(部分否定)
Not both of his children are college students.(部分否定)
Neither of his children are college students.(全部否定)
3.both ....... and ......译为“……和……都，既……又……”。其否定形式为：“neither...... nor......../ not either.......or......”。
The book is both interesting and instructive.
The book is neither interesting nor instructive.
He was famous both as a novelist and as a stateman.
He was famous neither as a novelist nor as a stateman.
He can’t speak French, neither can I.
【考例1】If Joe’s wife won’t go to the party, ______ .(07全国卷II，11)
A. he will either B. neither will he
C. he neither will D. either he will (B)
【考例2】Last week, only two people came to look at the house, _______ wanted to buy it.(07安徽卷，34)
A. none of them B. both of them
C. none of whom D. neither of whom (D)
【考例3】It is reported that two schools, _______ are being built in my hometown, will open next year.(07四川卷，27)
A. they both B. which both C. both of them D. both of which (D)
【考例4】 To know more about the British Museum, you can use the Internet or go to the library, or _______.(08天津卷，5)
A. neither B. some C. all D. both (D)
【考例5】 —Which of the two computer games did you prefer? —Actually I didn’t like ______.(08全国卷I，30)
A. both of them B. either of them C. none of them D. neither of them (B)
【考例6】 It was hard for him to learn English in a family, in which _____ of the parents spoke the language.(08北京卷，25)
A. none B. neither C. both D. each (B)
1.You can only be sure of _______ you have at present; you cannot be sure of something _____ you might get in the future.
A. that; what B. what; / C. which; that D. /; that
2.The way he did it was different _______ we were used to.
A. in which B. in what C. from what D. from which
3.Do you have any idea _______ is actually going on in the classroom?
A. that B. what C. as D. which
4.Danby left word with my secretary _______ he would call again in the afternoon.
A. who B. that C. as D. which
5.------Do you think it wise for Chinese mothers to try to do everything for their children?
------No. That’s _______ they are mistaken.
A. why B. how C. the place that D. where
1.After ______ seemed a long time, the soldier came back to the front.
A. it B. that C. which D. what
2.________ you are coming to London is the best news I have heard this long time.
A. That B. I f C. Whether D. When
3. _________ doesn’t seem to have been any difficulty over the money question.
A. It B. There C. We D. That
4.There is a common belief among the students _______ there should be fewer exams at school.
A. that B. which C. why D.for whom
5.The clerk was soon told _______ he did was not well received.
A. that why B. the reason why C. why what D. what that
1.Nothing taught by others can have the same effect on you as _______ learned by youself.
A. the one B. it C. that D. those
2.-----What about a moon trip?
-----What? Are you travelling that way _______ you don’t have a clear picture of the earth?
A. when B. where C. after D. since
3.We are living in an age _______ we treasure very much, because it sees man’s rapid development.
A. which B. when C .where D. what
4.Was it when he was training in the field _______ the captain got hurt?
A. when B. that C. how D. where
5.Try _______ he may, he is sure to fail without correct instructions.
A. although B. as C. if D. since
1.They are faced with the same kinds of challenges and problems after graduation ________ we are.
A. as if B. even if C. as D. when
2.-----Did you punish him for that?
-----Yes, but I don’t think I _________.
A. should have done so B. need to have done so
C. should do that D. ought have done that
3.-------How is John’s fever?
-------Nothing serious. _______ it gets worse, we’ll send for a doctor.
A. After B. Unless C. Until D. If
4.He’s poor and coughs all day long, but, _____ , I’m sure he’ll not give up smoking.
A. if so B. so that C. even D. even so
5. ________ is where to go for a picnic.
A. What they worry B. What worries them
C. What is worried D. What they are worried
1.He’ll accept the job _______ the salary is too low. After all he needs money.
A. unless B. if not C. though D. so long as
2.It was in such a friendly way ________ she talked with us.
A. as B. in which C. / D. that
3.She had gone through just a few carriages ________ she found herself at the front of the train.
A. before B. while C. after D. as
4.Frank’s dream was to have his own shop _____ to produce the workings of his own hands.
A. that B. in which C. by which D. how
5.The place ______ the bridge is supposed to be built should be _______ the cross-river traffic is the heaviest.
A. which; where B. at which; which
C. at which; where D. which; in which
1.I told Jim jokingly that his painting looked like a mess from _______ I was.
A. where B. what C. how D. that
2.Spiders are not an insect, as many people think, ________ even nearly related to them.
A. and B. when C. which D. nor
3.He will be tired when we see him tomorrow ________ he’s been working all night.
A.if B. so C. so that D. but
4.They lost their way in the forest, and _______ made matters worse was that night began to fall..
A. it B. which C. that D. what
5.My deskmate, Chen Qing, has been guaranteed to Zhejiang University, learning French, ______ of course, made the others envy her.
A. what B. as C. who D. which
1.Ma Yingjiu, chairman of Chinese Kuomingtang, expressed his thought to the media ______ the cross-straits would be united in time.
A. which B. that C. what D. in which
2._______ I love about O. Henry’s stories is that the end is always surprising.
A. Why B. Where C. What D. That
3.______ you are familiar with this topic, I will not waste time giving further explanation.
A. Now that B. Ever since C. Even if D. As soon as
4.I have no idea ______ it was that called me this early morning.
A. what B. who C. why D. that
5.The course normally attracts 200 students per year, _______ up to half will be from overseas.
A. in which B. for whom C. with wich D. of whom
1.________ is known to us all is that the old scientist, for ________ life was hard in the past, still works hard in his eighties.
A. It; whose B. As; whom C. As; whose D. What; whom
2.People are wondering ______ that the school shooting in the U.S comes about again and again.
A. where it is B. how is it C. what is it D. why it is
3.I can’t explain anything _________ you won’t listen.
A. while B. when C. but D. before
4.In China, many young people end up with a job _______ they are not suited.
A. which B. to which C. in which D. at which
5.I prefer the climate here to ______ in LanZhou, because it is too dry tere.
A. that B. this C. it D. one
1.I prefer a pen made in Shanghai to ________ made in Shenzhen.
A. it B. that C. one D. this
2.------Do you have any idea ________ she got her passport?
------I hear one of her friend offered her help.
A. what B. that C. how D. who
3.He devoted all his time to preparing for the competition, ________ he won.
A. in order that B. so that C. now that D. in case
4.The reason ______ he falls behind is _______ his thoughts always wander in class.
A. which; that B. why; because C. why; that D. that; what
5.Our English teacher told us to find out ______ the differences between American English and British English lie in.
A. where B. how C. what D. which
1.________ seems to be a strong competition in China for senior high students to enter college or university.
A. It B. There C. What D. which
2. “Time flies! One year will have passed and you will be saying goodbye to your high school life ______ you know it”, as our English teacher’s favorite expression is.
A. after B. when C. before D. until
3.We’re just trying to reach a point _______ both sides will sit down together and talk.
A. where B. that C. when D. which
4.-----Is that the small town you often refer to?
------Right, just the one _______ you know I used to work for years.
A. that B. which C. where D. what
5.Look out! Don’t get too close to the house _______ roof is under repair.
A. whose B. which C. of which D. that